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Anthropology

Introduction


Anthropology has its etymological origins in the Greek words Anthropos meaning human being and logos meaning study. Anthropology is thus a study of the history of the development of human beings. Though anthropology was originally purely a Natural Science it has evolved into a much more complex field of study where the human society, as much as the human evolution, is a major subject of inquiry. The fathers of anthropology include the illustrious Claude Levi-Strauss, Edward Burnett Tylor, Emile Durkheim, Lewis H. Morgan, Bronislaw Malinowski, Franz Boas, etc. In its initial stages anthropology was often used by the colonizers to classify the colonized other but today anthropology has emerged as a great proponent of multiculturalism and pluralism. It has also been instrumental in exploding the myth of racial superiority.
Anthropology can be divided into more specialized branches of study. This division is known as the "four-field" approach to the subject. These four divisions are: Each of these branches are broad fields of studies which can then be further sub divided. For instance, Biological anthropologists can deal with primatology, forensic anthropology, evolutionary genetics, etc. Socio-Cultural anthropology can be similarly divided into various branches of study and research like the study of folklore, ethnic studies, psychological anthropology, media studies, cultural studies, etc. Semiotics, sociolinguistics, narrative analysis and discourse analysis fall under the broader linguistic branch of anthropology. Archaeology in its turn, contributes to the enrichment of various other fields of study such as population genetics, history, etc.

Nature of Work


Anthropologists have to be involved extensively with field work and researching. There are various institutes which employ anthropologists most importantly the Anthropological Survey of India. Anthropologists can also be employed as professors in various universities which offer courses on anthropology. Field work often involves study of certain ethnic groups or ancient artefacts in remote locations for long periods. The field work can be both physically and mentally exhaustive and involve working in locations with low comfort levels.

Eligibility


Generally anyone having completed their schooling in the science stream is eligible to study anthropology in college. This is because in most colleges and universities the bachelor's degree is a B.Sc. Therefore, having studied science is a must. Individual colleges or universities may have different requirements such as a grounding in 10+2 (with biology) and different percentages of marks required to take admission to a course in anthropology.
Similarly, for a master's degree in anthropology (M.Sc.), one needs to have completed the B.Sc. with requisite marks. Further academic options include PhD and research.
However, some universities also offer B.A and M.A in Anthropology.

Personality


An Anthropologist needs to be prepared for physical hard work (travelling, excavating, etc.). He or she should also be open-minded and unbiased. This quality is of utmost importance as a biased person (like the nineteenth century white colonisers who were predisposed to treat people with different skin colour as inferiors) will not be able to derive the right conclusions from their research and study. An anthropologist will be required to write down his or her findings; so some skill in the written language is also necessary.

Professional Courses


The degree courses offered in Anthropology include the bachelor's degree in science and the master's degree in science. One can also pursue Ph.D after completion of graduation studies. As mentioned above, it is also possible to pursue a bachelor's or master's degree in arts in Anthropology. The bachelor's degrees, almost always like most other arts and science subjects, have a three year course of study whereas the master's courses have a two year course of study.

Colleges, Institutions and Universities


Many colleges and universities offer degrees in anthropology. These are:

Specialization


There are several streams in which one can specialise in Anthropology. Some of them are Sociocultural Anthropology, Prehistoric Anthropology or Archaeology, Physical or Biological Anthropology, Linguistic Anthropology and Applied Anthropology.

Career Prospects


There are many fields where Anthropologists can find employment. If one is planning on an academic career, then one can either find Academic jobs at various universities and institutes or do research at organisations like the Archaeological Survey of India, the Planning Commission and the Commission for Scheduled Castes, Tribes and Other Backward Classes, the WHO, UNESCO and UNICEF. One can always work with NGOs working in under-developed areas. Other than such jobs, one can also find employment in corporate houses in the Human Resource Development sector as anthropologists can balance the relation between society and industry. Anthropologists are also employed by museums, art galleries, libraries and archives. One can find employment as archaeologists, curators, linguists, social workers, tour guides, in publishing houses and in social service organisations. Anthropologists also find employment in forensic science departments and criminal investigation departments.

Remunerations


The remuneration varies widely. For researchers, the grants are far and few between but if one is dedicated to one's task and one's research area, grants come someway or the other. Many foreign institutions support anthropological research in India as well. It is not that only Indian organisations support anthropological researches in India and overseas ones do not support research within India.
For non-research based jobs, the pay is generally good. Museums and libraries pay a high salary as do corporate houses for jobs in the Human Resource Development sector. Even working with NGOs pays quite well. The focus for most anthropologists is more on their work rather than on the money.

Remunerations


One can apply to universities and other academic institutions if one wishes to continue with research or teach. Otherwise, one can apply to museums, libraries and other archives for the post of curators and archivists. Similarly, one can apply to corporate houses for jobs in the Human Resource Development sector. One can also apply to institutions like the Archaeological Survey of India, the WHO, the UNESCO and the UNICEF. One can also find NGOs working with issues that one is interested in and team up with such NGOs to do both research and field work. This entails some sort of applied anthropology and is sometimes more mentally rewarding. One can also apply for posts in publishing houses dealing with the social sciences.

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